This Financial Guide answers frequently asked questions surrounding tax saving ventures; and provides tax saving strategies for deferring income, and maximizing deductions; it also includes some strategies for specific categories of individuals, such as those with high income and those who are self-employed.
Before getting into the specifics, however, we would like to stress the importance of proper documentation.
Many taxpayers forgo worthwhile tax deductions because they have neglected to keep receipts or records. Keeping adequate records is required by the IRS for employee business expenses, deductible travel and entertainment expenses, and charitable gifts and travel. But don't do it just because the IRS says so. Neglecting to track these deductions can lead to overlooking them. You also need to maintain records regarding your income. If your receive a large tax-free amount, such as a gift or inheritance, make certain to document the item so that the IRS does not later claim that you had unreported income.
The checklist items and answers to questions listed below are for general information only; and should be tailored to your specific situation. If you think one of them fits your tax situation, we'd be happy to discuss it with you.
What's The Best Way to Borrow to Make Consumer Purchases?
Take Out a Home-Equity Loan
Most consumer-related interest expense, such as from car loans or credit cards, is not deductible. Interest on a home equity loan, however, can be deductible. It may be advisable to take out a home-equity loan to pay off other nondeductible obligations.
Note: Prior to tax reform (for tax years before 2018), home equity loan interest was deductible on your tax return; however, for tax years 2018 through 2025 interest is only deductible for loans used to buy, build or substantially improve the taxpayer's home that secures the loan.
What Special Deductions Can I Get, if I'm Self-Employed?
If Self-Employed, Take Advantage of Special Deductions
You may be able to take an immediate expense deduction of up to $1,000,000 for 2018 ($510,000 in 2017), for equipment purchased for use in your business, instead of writing it off over many years. There is a phaseout limit of $2,500,000 in 2018 ($2,030,000 in 2017). Additionally, self-employed individuals can deduct 100 percent of their health insurance premiums. You may also be able to establish a Keogh, SEP or SIMPLE IRA plan and deduct your contributions (investments).
If Self-Employed, Hire Your Child in the Business
If your child is under age 18, he or she is not subject to employment taxes from your unincorporated business (income taxes still apply). This will reduce your income for both income and employment tax purposes and shift assets to the child at the same time; however, you cannot hire your child if he or she in under the age of 8 years old.
If You Have Your Own Business, Set Up and Contribute to a Retirement Plan
If you have your own business, consider setting up and contributing as much as possible to a retirement plan. These are allowed even for a sideline or moonlighting businesses. Several types of plans are available which minimize the paperwork involved in establishing and administering such a plan.
What Filing Status Can I File to Save on Taxes?
Check Out a Separate Filing Status, Even if You're Married
Certain married couples may benefit from filing separately instead of jointly. Consider filing separately if you meet the following criteria:
- One spouse has large medical expenses, miscellaneous itemized deductions, or casualty losses.
- The spouses' incomes are about equal.
Separate filing may benefit such couples because the adjusted gross income "floors" for taking the listed deductions will be computed separately. On the other hand, some tax benefits are denied to couples filing separately. In some states, filing separately can also save a significant amount of state income taxes.
Why Should I Participate in My Employer's Cafeteria Plan or FSA?
You May Actually End Up With an Effective Deduction for Medical Expenses
In 2018 (as in 2017), medical and dental expenses are deductible to the extent they exceed 7.5 percent of your adjusted gross income (AGI), reverting to 10 percent in 2019. For most individuals, particularly those with high income, this eliminates the possibility for a deduction. If your employer offers a Flexible Spending Account (FSA), Health Savings Account or cafeteria plan, these plans permit you to redirect a portion of your salary to pay these types of expenses with pretax dollars. Ask your employer if they provide either of these plans.
How Do I Get the Most Out of My Charitable Contributions?
Give Appreciated Assets to Charity
If you're planning to make a charitable gift, it generally makes more sense to give appreciated long-term capital assets to the charity, instead of selling the assets and giving the charity the after-tax proceeds. Donating the assets instead of the cash avoids capital gains tax on the sale, and you can obtain a tax deduction for the full fair-market value of the property.
Tip: Many taxpayers also give depreciated assets to charity. Deduction is for fair market value; no loss deduction is allowed for depreciation in value of a personal asset. Depending on the item donated, there may be strict valuation rules and deduction limits.
Keep Track of Mileage Driven for Business, Medical or Charitable Purposes
If you drive your car for business, medical or charitable purposes, you may be entitled to a deduction for miles driven. For 2017, it's 53.5 cents per mile for business, 17 cents for medical and moving purposes, and 14 cents for service for charitable organizations. You need to keep detailed daily records of the mileage driven for these purposes to substantiate the deduction.
Use the Gift-Tax Exclusion to Shift Income
You can give away $14,000 ($28,000 if joined by a spouse) per donee in 2017 (same as 2016), per year without paying federal gift tax. You can give $14,000 to as many donees as you like. The income on these transfers will then be taxed at the donee's tax rate, which is in many cases lower.
Note: Special rules apply to children under age 18. Also, if you directly pay the medical or educational expenses of the donee, such gifts will not be subject to gift tax.
I Have a Large Capital Gain This year. What Should I Do?
Accelerate Capital Losses and Defer Capital Gains
If you have investments on which you have an accumulated loss, it may be advantageous to sell it prior to year-end. Capital losses are deductible up to the amount of your capital gains plus $3,000 ($1,500 for married filing separately). If you are planning on selling an investment on which you have an accumulated gain, it may be best to wait until after the end of the year to defer payment of the taxes for another year (subject to estimated tax requirements).
For most capital assets held more than 12 months (long-term capital gains) the maximum capital gains tax is 20 percent. However, make sure to consider the investment potential of the asset. It may be wise to hold or sell the asset to maximize the economic gain or minimize the economic loss.
What Other Tax-favored Investments Should I Consider?
Watch Trading Activity in Your Portfolio
When your mutual fund manager sells stock at a gain, these gains pass through to you as realized taxable gains, even though you don't withdraw them. So you may prefer a fund with low turnover, assuming satisfactory investment management. Turnover isn't a tax consideration in tax-sheltered funds such as IRAs or 401(k)s. For growth stocks you invest in directly and hold for the long term, you pay no tax on the appreciation until you sell them. No capital gains tax is imposed on appreciation at your death.
Consider Tax-Exempt Municipal Bonds
Interest on state or local municipal bonds is generally exempt from federal income tax and from tax by the issuing state or locality. For that reason, interest paid on such bonds is somewhat less than that paid on commercial bonds of comparable quality. However, for individuals in higher brackets, the interest from municipal bonds will often be greater than from higher paying commercial bonds after reduction for taxes. Gain on sale of municipal bonds is taxable and loss is deductible. Tax-exempt interest is sometimes an element in the computation of other tax items. Interest on loans to buy or carry tax-exempts is non-deductible.
Invest in Treasury Securities
For high-income taxpayers, who live in high-income-tax states, investing in Treasury bills, bonds, and notes can pay off in tax savings. The interest on Treasuries is exempt from state and local income tax. Also, investing in Treasury bills that mature in the next tax year results in a deferral of the tax until the next year.
Contribute to an IRA
If you have income from wages or self-employment income, you can build tax-sheltered investments by contributing to a traditional or a Roth IRA. You may also be able to contribute to a spousal IRA -even where the spouse has little or no earned income. All IRAs defer the taxation of IRA investment income and in some cases can be deductible or be withdrawn tax-free.
Related Guide: For details on how Roth IRAs work and how they compare in other respects with traditional IRAs, please see this summary.
Related Guide: For details on the Coverdell Education Savings Account (formerly the Education IRA) - special purpose vehicles for higher education - please see this guide.
Tip: To get the most from IRA contributions, fund the IRA as early as possible in the year. Also, pay the IRA trustee out of separate funds, not out of the amount in the IRA. Following these two rules will ensure that you get the most tax-deferred earnings possible from your money.
What Are Other Tax Saving Measures?
Avoid or Defer Income Recognition
Why Should I Defer Income to a Later Year?
Deferring taxable income makes sense for two reasons:
- Most individuals are in a higher tax bracket in their working years than they are during retirement. Deferring income until retirement may result in paying taxes on that income at a lower rate.
- Additionally, through the use of tax-deferred retirement accounts you can actually invest the money you would have otherwise paid in taxes to increase the amount of your retirement fund.
Deferral can also work in the short term if you expect to be in a lower bracket in the following year or if you can take advantage of lower long-term capital gains rates by holding an asset a little longer.
Tip: You can achieve the same effect of deferring income by accelerating deductions, for example, by paying a state estimated tax installment in December instead of at the following January due date.
What Can I Do to Defer Income?
Defer Bonuses or Other Earned Income
If you are due a bonus at year-end, you may be able to defer receipt of these funds until January. This can defer the payment of taxes (other than the portion withheld) for another year. If you're self-employed, defer sending invoices or bills to clients or customers until after the new year begins. Here, too, you can defer some of the tax, subject to estimated tax requirements. This may even save taxes if you are in a lower tax bracket in the following year. Note, however, that the amount subject to social security or self-employment tax increases each year.
You can achieve the same effect of short-term income deferral by accelerating deductions, for example, paying a state estimated tax installment in December instead of at the following January due date.
Max Out Your 401(k) or Similar Employer Plan
Through the use of tax-deferred retirement accounts, you can invest some of the money you would have otherwise paid in taxes to increase the amount of your retirement fund. Many employers offer plans where you can elect to defer a portion of your salary and contribute it to a tax-deferred retirement account. For most companies, these are referred to as 401(k) plans. For many other employers, such as universities, a similar plan called a 403(b) is available. Check with your employer about the availability of such a plan and contribute as much as possible to defer income and accumulate retirement assets.
Tip: Some employers match a portion of employee contributions to such plans. If this is available, you should structure your contributions to receive the maximum employer matching contribution.
Bunch Your Itemized Deductions
Certain itemized deductions, such as medical or employment related expenses, are only deductible if they exceed a certain amount. It may be advantageous to delay payments in one year and prepay them in the next year to bunch the expenses in one year. This way you stand a better chance of getting a deduction.